#46 Content material is King, Distribution is King-Kong?


Content material was king when audiences and their budgets have been monopolized by conventional pay-TV. Media fragmentation modified the sport, together with for the sports activities/media industrial complicated: Proudly owning demand ( = client đŸ‘±â€â™‚ïž ) has turn into extra highly effective than proudly owning provide ( = content material 🎞 ) — with only a few exceptions.

Twine-cutting ✂ has been talked about over and over (moreover piracy ☠) as THE basic risk to the sports activities/media industrial complicated.

Nevertheless, it has hardly ever been addressed what cord-cutting means and why it issues for (skilled) sports activities. Subsequently, right here we go —:

What’s Twine-Chopping? The reallocation of the 💰 client’s disposable revenue — beforehand locked-in within the conventional pay-TV ecosystem and with stay sports activities programming demanding the lion’s share of it — to different digital options that began to proliferate. Netflix, Spotify and Co. have redefined client expectations for value-for-money propositions. The earlier go-to place for leisure — the ballooned pay-TV bundle — appears now not aggressive within the eye of a rising section of the market to demand the same share of their discretionary revenue as subjectively higher options turn into plentiful.

Why it issues? Conventional pay-TV monopolized content material, audiences, and their budgets — offering 🔀 distribution and đŸ€‘ revenues at scale for rights-holding content material creators. In flip, they have been greater than keen to go on a big chunk of these revenues to rights house owners in type of assured rights charges for renting their IP for just a few years. Lowered profitability for many who are licensing the rights ought to trickle all the way down to the IP house owners—even when barely delayed. It ought to make sports activities poorer 📉 if the present monetization hole of sports activities IP between the eroding linear pay-TV and rising OTT enterprise can’t be closed because it suffers from much less scale in whole and decrease monetization of the person.

Thankfully for legacy media corporations, the standard cable/satellite tv for pc pay-TV subscription continues to be the finest product-market-fit for almost all of not solely die-hard however even informal sports activities followers — the demographic group that’s most vital to help the sports activities/media industrial complicated. To this finish, cord-cutting continues to be extra of an area improvement (throughout North and South America) than a universally relevant development. In different phrases, there’s nonetheless a while left for legacy media corporations to grasp the 🔌 cable-to-streaming đŸ“± transition. Nevertheless, as earlier entry boundaries erode (suppose: legacy-sized TV infrastructure), new threats to undermine their dominant market place emerge from new market entrants particularly. No matter being a longtime incumbent or the brand new challenger, content material (= provide) alone doesn’t longer appear to be enough to seize audiences and their disposable revenue (= demand). This was the case so long as conventional pay-TV offered a one single, centralized distribution system. Right now, distribution is fragmented and, as an alternative of a assure for revenues, being out there on TV platforms (e.g. Amazon Hearth TV, Apple TV, Roku, Android TV), cellular platforms (e.g. iOS, Android), or native telcos / TV operators (e.g. Orange, Free, SFR, Bouygues, Canal+ in France) merely reduces friction for the client sign-up:

  • đŸ€‘ Carriage charges have turn into affiliate charges.

  • 🔀 Distribution has turn into a vital however not enough situation to run a profitable OTT streaming enterprise— with only a few exceptions.

Outsized earnings turn into potential by way of both (1) a horizontal monopoly ↔ in one of many three layers or (2) the mixing of two of the components ↕ such {that a} aggressive benefit in delivering a vertical resolution materializes. The previous is the explanation why I might have enormous antitrust issues every time a Huge-5 European soccer league, for instance, would go completely over-the-top of their respective home market. The latter has turn into much less seemingly because of the elevated fragmentation of audiences, however is the entire cause why gamers within the distribution layer that already personal direct buyer relationships to at the very least a sure market section are fascinated about renting sport broadcasting rights—together with Huge Tech.

B2B-turning-B2C firm MediaPro is much from both and is a well timed case examine of how even premium content material has misplaced its drawing energy. Now, distribution makes or breaks investments in sports activities media rights, or every other licensing of content material for that matter. In trade for a whopping +/- €825M per season, the sports activities manufacturing firm and rights company has turn into the home rights holder of the đŸ‡«đŸ‡· French Ligue 1 ⚜ and at present fights the battle over distribution. This weblog has a play-by-play commentary alongside the corporate taking on the whole worth chain for one of many priciest properties in European soccer—with none aggressive benefits:

  • đŸ“œCONTENT CREATION: Rights don’t essentially suggest an obligation to utilize such and the funding in rights acquisitions is just one a part of the overall value equation. Eradicating the constraints of restricted programming minutes of linear TV by the transition to digital streaming, the trickle-down economics of sports activities have been revealed: Rights holders solely care in regards to the huge golf equipment and think about even common groups somewhat as a legal responsibility than an asset.

  • đŸ’»CONTENT EXPLOITATION: New market entrants should not have to grasp the cable-to-streaming transition like legacy media corporations. Nevertheless, that doesn’t imply that they shouldn’t be out there in each distribution methods. A platform-agnostic method should be the go-to-market technique for many rights holders for now. Whatever the eventual means of distribution, although, the corporate’s OTT streaming service, priced at €29.90 monthly or €25.90 monthly as a part of an annual plan, will face the difficult unit economics of OTT that each (pure-sports) streamer does.

  • 🔀CONTENT DISTRIBUTION: Even for premium content material such because the home top-flight soccer leagues, it’s onerous to chop by way of the noise as digital content material proliferates. Any distribution take care of platforms which have built-in audiences brings TĂ©lĂ©foot, the consumer-facing model of MediaPro licensed from TF1, one vital step additional down the conversion funnel. As France stays a powerful IPTV market with an underdeveloped/-penetrated OTT panorama, telcos and TV operators successfully function gatekeepers. As MediaPro positioned itself as a direct competitor for sports activities rights acquisition, Canal+, with +/- 8M subscribers in all probability probably the most highly effective gatekeeper in France, stays reluctant to shut a distribution settlement. In consequence, TĂ©lĂ©foot has reportedly accrued solely +/- 600K subscribers to this point: removed from the communicated subscriber purpose of +/- 3.5M. The owned and operated streaming service (out there to everybody) solely accounts for a 3rd of the present subscriber base.

🏁 To conclude, if any given rights holder has not a built-in person base, the distribution (along with the content material IP naturally) should be rented from these platforms who already personal the client relationship. Off-platforms subscribers đŸ‘±â€â™‚ïž, these signed up straight by way of the web site of the owned and operated streaming service, have the very best worth (suppose: buyer knowledge, highest margin) however symbolize the clear minority of circumstances: being extra of a direct-to-fan than direct-to-consumer service.

* For the reason that weblog reached outsized proportions, that could be a quick abstract. The true nuggets are within the full weblog submit under although. —

“The way forward for media won’t ever be as worthwhile because the previous has been.” — a daring speculation however cord-cutting, and thus the erosion of sport’s major supply of revenues, has been cited as the most important problem for the sports activities/media industrial complicated. Nevertheless, the query of why cord-cutting is a basic risk has hardly ever been addressed.

What’s Twine-Chopping? The reallocation of disposable revenue which was locked-in within the conventional pay-TV ecosystem—with stay sports activities programming demanding the lion’s share of it. Nevertheless, shoppers grew to become pissed off as content material fragmented and different digital options began to proliferate, typically providing higher value-for-money in comparison with the earlier go-to type of leisure—the “ballooned pay-TV bundle.”

Why it issues? Audiences fragmented (“Audiences comply with Content material, at the very least to some extern—extra on that later.”) and, extra importantly, took their budgets with them. Conventional pay-TV offered distribution and revenues at scale for content material creators. Rights-holding content material creators have been then keen to go on these revenues to rights house owners in type of assured rights charges for renting their IP for just a few years. Lowered profitability for many who are licensing the rights ought to trickle all the way down to the IP house owners as nicely—even when barely delayed.

Distribution and assured monetization was built-in, however has turn into more and more tough in a fragmented panorama with an abundance of opponents for the patron’s thoughts and pockets share.

Whereas third-party licensees face basic challenges, disintermediating them fully and going “direct-to-consumer” is just not an choice for rights house owners both as they might be even less-equipped to maintain the present stage of revenue.

MediaPro’s acquisition of top-notch IP (i.e. French Ligue 1 in France) is a well timed case examine of how content material has misplaced its energy and distribution has turn into extra priceless than ever and completely required to realize scale in video streaming—earlier than even worrying about buyer monetization down the street.


Digital Options not in a position to choose up the slack: From a sports activities rights proprietor’s viewpoint, that doesn’t imply that such misplaced revenues siphoned out of the standard pay-TV ecosystem cannot be recuperated. Nevertheless, the digital options (a.okay.a. digital MVPDs) haven’t confirmed to have the ability to choose up the churned prospects or seize a lot of the freed-up disposable revenue as competitors for the patron’s pockets share is fierce and different digital merchandise have redefined the value-for-money notion anticipated by shoppers within the meantime—in different phrases, Spotify, Prime Video, Netflix, or Disney Plus have turn into the beneficiaries of the price range reallocation amidst the rising adoption of streaming companies. One pay-TV subscription has typically been changed by a stack of OTT streaming companies. Sadly for the stay TV distribution system and most of the time, such a self-selected bundle of subscription streaming companies doesn’t embody tv’s digital various anymore. In the USA, latest year-over-year subscription progress charges of digital MVPDs have been spectacular on a relative foundation by way of Q1/2020 (+38%). Nevertheless, some gamers (suppose: A&T TV Now -47.7%, Sling -4.7%), particularly, and the marketplace for digital MVDs (-349K web additions throughout COVID-induced sports activities hiatus) already appear to have peaked. Admittedly, the latest sports activities hiatus solely accelerated cord-cutting in the USA by way of the final quarter because the mass exodus of TV video bundles continued and, with the shortage of stay sports activities, there have been little incentives for cord-cutters to turn into at the very least cord-shavers/movers—shedding 1.5M prospects in simply three months and conversion to digital MVPDs remaining lackluster.

One contributing issue has been that the initially superior price-to-value proposition of YouTube TV ($65 monthly), fubo TV ($60 monthly), or Hulu Dwell TV ($55 monthly) has not confirmed to be sustainable because the so-called “skinny bundles” grew inevitably in (1) scope and (2) worth:

(1) Scope of digital MVPDs: There’ll at all times be the one channel that’s lacking to make it a match for the incremental buyer and within the pursuit of continued subscriber progress—seemingly the one metric that issues for buyers within the quick time period with full disregard for working money flows—platform operators are virtually compelled to additional add to their channel providing to efficiently handle the market. The dangerous information for platform operators: There isn’t any cherry-picking and this one sought-after content material channel (suppose: anchor channel resembling ESPN) of a content material creator (suppose: The Walt Disney Firm) will typically come along with the whole household of content material channels (and their price ticket) owned by the content material creator (suppose: long-tail / premium channels resembling ESPNU, Freeform, ESPN Information, Disney XD). And despite the fact that the stand-alone worth tags of those tugged-on channels ($0.20-0.35) can not examine to these of the corporate’s flagship channel resembling correct ESPN ($7.86) and The Disney Channel ($1.61), multiplied throughout a distribution system housing greater than 100M subscribing households at one level, the month-to-month invoice payable to the content material creator will increase considerably—with out actually driving both buyer acquisition or retention. In different phrases, the bundling alongside the broadcasting/streaming worth chain already begins means earlier than the top shoppers enter the image—bundling begins as early as when content material creators purchase the IP (and obligations) from rights house owners resembling sports activities leagues in an effort to create such content material. Given their lack of scale and, thus, restricted significance for the enterprise of content material creators, digital MVPDs can not hope for any precedent-setting reductions in comparison with conventional pay-TV operators both.

(2) Pricing of digital MVPDs: Taking a look at a TV distributor’s major enter prices (i.e. carriage charges paid to content material creators), simple arithmetic dictates that the preliminary worth ranges weren’t sustainable from the start and have become even much less so over time: Whereas prices elevated consistently by a mixture of accelerating carriage charges per channel every time carriage agreements expired and including further channels, or extra seemingly a complete household of them, pricing energy didn’t enhance—neither in direction of the content material creators in ever-more “carriage disputes” nor the top shoppers.

Carriage charges a.okay.a. content material acquisition prices, which is one thing totally different than affiliate charges (extra on that later), are just one a part of the price equation when working a stay linear TV streaming service like fubo TV although:

  • Advertising prices, particularly as a brand new participant with an unknown model (suppose: no model fairness) and enterprise mannequin (suppose: linear TV through OTT streaming as an alternative of “TV In all places” which was nonetheless tethered to an authenticated conventional pay-TV subscription) are vital as model consciousness, promotions (suppose: free trials, reductions), and buyer schooling (suppose: cancellable on month-to-month foundation) are key for any early market penetration and buyer pick-up.

  • Overhead prices don’t attain the extent of satellite-/cable-based video distributors and their legacy-sized infrastructure and price construction however operations and supply prices (suppose: CDN, cloud storage, VPN/DRM safety) are nonetheless vital.

As these gamers began to compensate for rising prices and take a look at reaching product-market-fit for a mainstream viewers, cord-shaving (i.e. changing the ballooned conventional pay-TV bundle with a smaller, cheaper however extra related bundle of channels of comparable subjective utility) is evolving into mere cord-moving: changing the ballooned conventional pay-TV bundle with a much less dependable (suppose: streaming points), much less performative (suppose: latency) various of comparable scope and worth.

Regarding acquisition and advertising and marketing prices, there’ll by no means be a sustainable aggressive value benefit for digital MVPDs since they don’t equal their conventional counterparts in vital mass (suppose: max. 3M prospects) and economics (suppose: decrease buyer lifetime worth) within the eye of content material creators simply but. Stand-alone gamers with out vital cross-ownership by the standard pay-TV, particularly, mustn’t maintain out hope for any sweet-heart offers and even equal remedy (suppose: most favored nation clauses)—Hulu and extra lately fuboTV have confirmed that preliminary buyers resembling FOX, AMC, or Discovery are keen to exit their strategic toehold possession for a fast return on their funding. (Apparently, The Walt Disney Firm has each turn into the bulk proprietor of the previous and retained a minority stake within the latter amidst the sale to FaceBank.)

Unsurprisingly, I am somewhat bearish on pure-plays like fuboTV (286K subscribers; $44M in revenues; 100M in web losses throughout Q2/2020)—the stay TV streaming companies that lately introduced their plans to IPO however:

  • is considerably smaller than its friends Hulu Dwell TV (3.4M), Sling TV (2.3M), and YouTube TV (2.0M),

  • already misplaced a lot of the strategic toehold-ownerships of established content material creators and distributors,

  • will lack the dimensions that pulls institutional buyers at giant and warrants a valuation premium, and

  • wants huge scale to beat the enterprise mannequin’s lack of vertical integration (suppose: renting content material and prospects) and stuck prices drawback of each subscriber having minute contribution margins, and are removed from optimistic as soon as buyer acquisition prices are taken into consideration (suppose: damaging gross-margin subscription base)—equally impartial Spotify did it, however the Swedish-based music streaming platform can, amongst different issues, additionally afford to be selective with exterior distribution (suppose: no sign-up through iOS and Android) because of its model energy, superior product UX/UI, and rising differentiation by way of authentic content material, making the single-unit economics extra bearable and profit from a world addressable market to realize the required scale. I’m not positive fuboTV can do it.

Compounded by the often difficult OTT economics (suppose: larger CAC, decrease CLV) and lack of incremental monetization in addition to built-in stickiness of the client relationship (suppose: broadband or different telecommunication companies), over-the-top distribution, i.e. untethered from the standard cable and satellite tv for pc TV system, stays area of interest. On the similar time, rights-holding broadcasters can not overlook who their most worthwhile prospects at present are and, thus, will influence rights valuation most importantly within the short-term—one thing rights-owners care most about: the extra prosperous, older-skewing conventional pay-TV subscriber.

Despite the fact that bundling and unbundling of companies is an inevitably cyclical improvement, I don’t imagine that the tipping level has been reached simply but—at the very least from a profitability viewpoint—and the economics of bundling a number of channels nonetheless makes extra sense than every channel promoting itself on an a-la-carte foundation to particular person distributors or “straight” to the top shoppers. Conventional pay-TV subscriptions are nonetheless the perfect match for a lot of and, most significantly, for the informal sports activities followers who exist in abundance and sports activities broadcasting finally lives and dies with.

It’s simply not one-size-fits-all anymore and product-market-fit is now not full. Nevertheless, if any rights holder must determine on one monetization mannequin, the (conventional) “bundle” can be nonetheless the best way to go. Fortunately, rights holders should not restricted in arising with new methods of exploitation and monetization: elevated worth and product differentiation to cater to fragmented client conduct / preferences and narrowcasting as an alternative of above-mentioned broadcasting supply plenty of unexploited alternatives. This potential is simply additional evidenced by the truth that sports activities media consumption has shifted considerably from stay content material to highlights (50:50) whereas the monetization continues to occur within the former (80:20). In different phrases, rights holders are creating plenty of worth whereas not having the ability to seize that worth but.

Additional, each rights-holding conventional broadcasters or rising pure-play OTTs comply with the identical playbook for content material and monetization—the one enterprise mannequin innovation being elevated worth (suppose: extra aggressive pricing) and adaptability (suppose: month-to-month subscriptions) for the top shoppers. Put in another way, rights holders are promoting the identical however moved from the high-margin economics of conventional pay-TV to margin-pressured OTT economics.

The excellent news, although: There may be a while left for rights holders—enabled by know-how and rights house owners’ realization of the necessity for a extra collaborative method—to advance enterprise fashions to grasp the cable-to-streaming transition. “Twine-cutting” continues to be somewhat an area phenomenon than a common development internationally. The Americas, particularly, have been inclined to such siphoning of the shoppers’ disposable revenue out of the pay-TV distribution system for a number of causes, together with the regulatory framework: The historic separation of content material creation and distribution is super-charging the secular decline in pay-TV throughout the USA, Brazil, or Mexico. In distinction, vertical integration throughout Western Europe and Asia makes conventional pay-TV extra sticky: The previous is at the very least secure, whereas the latter continues to be rising—apart from the SE Asia area that had skilled unprecedented progress and competitors final decade and is now present process a major market correction that’s notably related to rights charges to the European soccer leagues. (📝 Weblog #37 – English Premier League: Is there something to realize for Scadumore’s Successor because the League’s CEO?)

Even the COVID-induced sports activities hiatus and financial stress along with conventional TV operators more and more having to compete with sports activities and non-sports streaming companies didn’t stop the worldwide pay-TV market from additional including web subscribers in vital quantities throughout Q2/2020, in keeping with 🔱 Ampere Analysis (2020).

Then again, worsening fundamentals (= intrinsic worth) don’t essentially imply {that a} market correction throughout the board is coming. The extent of monetization can also be just one enter variable for figuring out the media rights charges finally being paid to the IP house owners (= market worth): New market entrants proceed to imagine within the intrinsic worth of top-tier stay sports activities programming, keen to proceed to pay a premium. Moreover, long-term media rights offers, that are particularly prevalent in North America, could end in particular rights not being absolutely valued but, i.e. haven’t priced-in market developments because the final time that the rights house owners went to the market with their most respected IP. For instance, the U.S. sports activities rights markets could have seen virtually all main sports activities leagues heading to the marketplace for home renewals till the top of subsequent yr. Regardless of the newest market developments (suppose: COIVD + secular decline in pay-TV), they’ve basically sat out the whole media rights frenzy that has occurred since 2016 regardless of at the moment 15% fewer U.S. households having pay-TV than 4 years in the past. In different phrases, there’s way more to meet up with than the newest developments having the potential to scale back the respective worth tags. Plus: Even triple-digit share will increase—not fully dominated out for the NHL and NFL (each final valued in 2011)—are rapidly put into perspective with the shorter rights cycles in Europe as soon as trying on the implied annual progress charges.

OTT is the longer term, conventional pay-TV is the previous. Proper now, the transition needs to be managed and earlier than closing the monetization hole between the previous and future mannequin, getting market penetration and client take-up for over-the-top distributed pure-sports streaming companies within the first place must be the precedence—setting oneself up for shifting from buyer acquisition to buyer monetization mode as soon as (1) pay-TV is now not the perfect value-for-money for the overwhelming share of (informal) sports activities followers and/or (2) the price-to-value ratio can now not be justified by even for mid-to-high revenue earners: i.e. as soon as conventional pay-TV hits all-time low.

Closing the monetization hole by overcoming the short-term deflationary influence of OTT streaming companies (suppose: hyper-aggressive pricing/promotion, friction-less / month-to-month cancellation, no or at the very least lowered advert load as buyer acquisition and watch expertise are prioritized) turns into very important as soon as “OTT” has turn into the first enterprise mannequin of rights-holding broadcasters.

If that transition can’t be mastered, sports activities will merely get poorer as “Huge Tech” won’t ever save sports activities at giant as future rights valuations shall be decided by the enterprise fashions and built-in monetization capabilities of the frequent media rights consumers and never the once-in-a-lifetime corporations like Amazon—which is able to by no means be capable of purchase (or at the very least not be fascinated about doing so) the rights from each rights proprietor in each market. Not to mention the truth that it at present even receives reductions when doing one in all its few, very selective rights acquisitions.

Subsequently, the basic enterprise mannequin of rights holders will inevitably want the re-addition of income streams—evolving from the present dual-revenue stream (subscription + promoting) right into a triple-revenue stream mannequin together with add-on integrations like different direct-to-consumer verticals adjoining to (stay sports activities) video streaming resembling betting, merchandising, or ticketing. The issue of cord-cutting is twofold although: Apart from the short- to mid-term influence of cord-cutting on rights valuation, it additionally limits the accessibility to stay sports activities programming and the flexibility to nurture the curiosity of the subsequent generations in sports activities which might negatively influence long-term participation.

Closing the monetization hole between conventional pay-TV and OTT is a subject for an additional day, although. Earlier than, and as conventional distribution falls aside, rights-holding streaming companies should combat for market penetration, scale, and buyer possession with rights house owners and distribution platforms—together with the inevitable query: Has distribution turn into extra vital than the precise content material within the digital age?


Technically, streaming and manufacturing know-how has been democratized, cheapened, and commoditized—despite the fact that doing it at scale and on a transactional foundation, particularly, not fairly but. (📝 Weblog #34: Streaming of Dwell Sports activities: The Triple-Play of “Dwell” + “Unique” + “Pay-per-View”)

Consequently, Any technical infrastructure is never in a position to function a aggressive benefit or moat anymore—in distinction to the market entry boundaries which the asset-heavy and costly conventional tv operations represented previously. Right now, anybody’s willingness to pay for renting the rights proprietor’s IP appears to be the one market entry barrier left for potential bidders: Though most top-tier rights house owners are imagined to have a various set of choice standards for awarding media rights—particularly for his or her home rights—paying a little bit of a premium often does the trick for brand spanking new, unproven market entrants.

Unquestionably, this improvement has benefitted lower-tier properties as (automated) manufacturing and distribution in an unconstrained-in-size system (suppose: limitless shelf area on the web) have been enabled, creating at the very least the prerequisite for monetization of their media rights sooner or later. Prime-tier sports activities properties that already have been sought-after property in occasions of restricted demand (suppose: restricted programming minutes on linear TV), alternatively, must handle the cable-to-streaming transition—which is much less a technical (suppose: TV-In all places) than a industrial problem.

Commercially, shoppers are now not keen to blindly comply with stay sports activities content material for a number of causes, together with the elevated content material fragmentation which requires additional buyer schooling (suppose: discovery, adoption of latest distribution means) and fewer perceived value-for-money when in comparison with different non-sports digital subscription companies in addition to heightened competitors for his or her consideration, time, and, finally, disposable budgets.

Content material has been king within the conventional distribution system that monopolized audiences, their time and budgets whereas guaranteeing scale for content material creators—differentiated content material was the principle bargaining chip towards content material distributors that decided carriage charges and, thus, the share of the overall nationwide (pay-TV) market any given rights-holding content material creator might demand.

Hypothetically, does the same scale in OTT streaming, which is required to realize the same stage of monetization of content material given the shortage of innovation in enterprise fashions as much as at the moment, require ubiquitous third-party distribution (and all of the downsides that come together with that), or is the drawing of premium content material sufficient and at the moment’s empowered shoppers will proactively hunt down stand-alone streaming companies—breaking established habits?


Coincidentally, we have now an ideal case examine occurring in France the place beginner MediaPro rented the majority of the 2 top-flights soccer leagues’ rights for 4 seasons (2020/21 – 2023/24) and a complete format of +/- €825M (€790M for Ligue 1 + €35M for Ligue 2) per season. As a part of the bi-weekly podcast “The Bundle by Unofficial Associate,” Richard Gillis and I’ve been offering our play-by-play commentary for MediaPro’s transformation from a rights-trading middleman—a mere arbitrage enterprise with restricted sustainability as their data benefit in comparison with rights house owners erodes and rights house owners more and more search direct relationships with their broadcasting companions—and B2B manufacturing firm to a fully-fledged consumer-facing media firm together with rights acquisition, content material creation, content material exploitation, and, finally, content material distribution.

Because the Barcelona-based firm now seeks market penetration and client take-up for his or her newly-launched OTT streaming companies—does premium content material nonetheless does the trick by itself?

Outsized earnings turn into potential by way of both (1) a horizontal monopoly in one of many three layers or (2) the mixing of two of the components such {that a} aggressive benefit in delivering a vertical resolution materializes. The previous is the explanation why I might have enormous antitrust issues every time a Huge-5 European soccer league, for instance, would go over-the-top completely of their respective home market.

The latter has turn into much less seemingly because of the elevated fragmentation of audiences, however is the entire cause why gamers within the distribution layer that already personal direct buyer relationships to at the very least a sure market section are fascinated about renting sport broadcasting rights—together with Huge Tech.


After the same try has failed or at the very least been placed on maintain till additional discover because the league ponders a capital injection from personal fairness buyers, in Italy, the Barcelona-based firm lastly entered the consumer-facing function of being the official major home broadcaster of a Huge-5 European soccer league by buying the vast majority of French Ligue 1’s and all of Ligue 2’s media rights for a whopping mixed +/- €825M per season by way of the 2023-24 season.

This deal put the French top-flight on way more equal footing with its European friends domestically—whereas it continues to undergo from the bargains that long-term rights lock-ups have turned out to be for broadcasters over the previous few years: The LFP basically missed out on the whole international media rights frenzy and rise of Paris St. Germain since 2016 by extending an present take care of Qatari-based beIN Sports activities by way of the 2023/24 season in 2014—years prematurely of the unique €32.5M deal’s expiration (2017/18), in personal negotiations and with out an open tender. The brand new deal for €80M per season, plus a reported income share part, pales compared to the English Premier League and Spanish La Liga particularly. Making an attempt to front-run a probably overheating sports activities rights market again in 2014 turned out to be an unwise resolution as the newest deal has basically been probably the most profitable one ever since. Thus, the French top-flight was closely incentivized to go along with probably the most profitable bid regardless of some early warning indicators (e.g. lack of financial institution assure offered by MediaPro or consumer-facing model)—the brand new market entrant was absolutely keen to pay such premium to comprehend its ambitions within the B2C market.


There are two frequent misconceptions in the case of rights acquisitions: First, rights don’t essentially suggest an obligation to utilize such. For lower-tier properties, particularly, the cost-benefit-analysis typically dictates to solely produce and distribute the most important video games of any given competitors—leading to plenty of locked-up however unexploited IP. In consequence, particularly in worldwide markets, rights house owners such because the Spanish La Liga have began to not solely bundle their second-tier with the top-notch competitors when promoting the rights but in addition connected obligations to use the acquired IP by way of the compelled distribution of a sure variety of second-division video games as A part of any settlement (for the highest flight’s rights). Second, the funding in rights acquisitions is just one a part of the overall value equation: Home rights holders, particularly, can not depend on simulcasting a league-produced worldwide feed however are anticipated, each by the league and native followers, to place huge assets into this system’s manufacturing and presentation. Being the “content material layer” within the sports activities broadcasting market, i.e. working in each the B2B sports activities rights market and B2C sports activities programming market, comes with plenty of operational overhead and margin stress: a typical media firm.

Despite the fact that rights house owners such because the German Bundesliga have considerably forward-integrated into the “content material layer”, each for self-exploitation (principally specializing in archive materials and social media content material) and steering/incentivizing rights holders to current the league’s product in the perfect and most-distributed means potential, manufacturing, operational, and advertising and marketing prices are nonetheless vital—not just for any league’s home broadcaster however the inner media companions as nicely.

This grew to become crystal-clear as MediaPro had reportedly been a deciding voice towards including two further groups for the 2020/21 Ligue 1 season in an effort to type out the implications of the COVID-induced cancellation of final season. It seemingly thought of the manufacturing and distribution of 82x further somewhat as a legal responsibility than an asset—making the trickle-down economics of pay-TV blatantly apparent: They solely care in regards to the largest groups who draw mass audiences, i.e. are in a position to cross-over into the mainstream. Once more: (The economics of) sports activities broadcasting finally stay and die with the informal sports activities followers. On the optimistic aspect, third-party rights holders solely being within the most-marquee video games (suppose: keen to pay 80% of the cash for 50% of the sport stock) and rights house owners having personal direct-to-consumer ambitions symbolize complementary pursuits at first look—despite the fact that I don’t count on rights holders to permit leagues to extend the scope and/or exclusivity of retained rights with out considerably reducing their licensing charges as a result of purely-strategic, not financial causes.


The built-up legacy of market incumbents within the sports activities broadcasting market is usually positioned as a aggressive drawback for mastering the cable-to-streaming transition. Particularly the inherent battle about how briskly to cannibalize the nonetheless highly-profitable legacy companies (suppose: two separate slates of programming, one for broadcast/cable and one for streaming) because the transfer into streaming is inevitable within the lone-run when taking the altering consumption habits, the technical limitations of linear satellite tv for pc/cable TV, and the legacy-sized operations together with the connected mounted prices are taken into consideration. Nevertheless, established model consciousness and belief, decade-long manufacturing and advertising and marketing experience, built-in subscription bases, legacy cashflows, and distribution agreements is usually a super-valuable asset when jumpstarting a stand-alone OTT streaming service.

MediaPro has had the advantage of decade-long manufacturing experience and solved the shortage of brand name consciousness within the B2C market by licensing the historic TĂ©lĂ©foot moniker—TF1’s long-running soccer journal program would compensate for one in all MediaPro’s largest blindspots and supply editorial know-how as nicely.

MediaPro’s distribution and monetization mannequin is that this of a straight-forward (1) stand-alone, (2) ad-supported, (3) subscription-based OTT streaming service: aggressively priced, month-to-month cancellable, and digital-first distribution through owned and operated platforms (i.e. web site) or cellular (iOS, Android) / tv (Roku, Hearth TV, Apple TV, Google TV) working methods. The introduction of a reduced mobile-only month-to-month go for €14.90 (vs. €29.90/€25.90 for month-to-month/annual go) has been some much-welcomed innovation: I am a giant proponent of extra worth and product differentiation to realize a extra full product-market-fit as mainstream tradition has been fractured by new applied sciences.

Client preferences have turn into extra heterogeneous, and a one-size-fits-all method is just not revenue-/welfare-maximizing anymore. Such improvements can seize an incremental share of client’s disposable revenue—hanging the appropriate stability when it comes to scope (right here: mobile-only) and worth (right here: 50% low cost) is a fragile train nonetheless.

Finally, the TĂ©lĂ©foot streaming service follows the frequent OTT economics and dual-revenue stream mannequin although—and even the very bold plan of reaching 3.5M subscribers throughout all plans appears unlikely to generate a optimistic return on the rights funding within the foreseeable future.


  1. Cell-Solely Cross: As said above, I do see incrementality in product and worth differentiation together with discrimination (suppose: multi-platform, multi-product technique) to achieve a extra full product-market-fit: Fish the place the fishes are—with the appropriate bait. Since MediaPro didn’t present an replace of the subscription purpose (+/- 3.5M), let’s assume any dilution of ARPU can be completely compensation by an elevated variety of mobile-only subscriptions, though I feel there may even be additive revenues if performed intelligently.

  2. Seasonality: Often, a ****Portfolio method to any rights acquisition and content material creation technique is meant to counteract the inherent seasonality of sports activities. Having completely European soccer makes TĂ©lĂ©foot extraordinarily inclined to churn—the OTT market’s largest problem (suppose: CAC vs. CLV)—and a 75% annual churn fee (suppose: soccer season stretches throughout 9 out of twelve seasons) virtually represents the perfect case whereas an annual go at a 13% low cost virtually appears with out a actual use case assuming energetic subscription administration by shoppers.

  3. Promoting Income: Promoting budgets are shifting to digital, pushed by the migration of audiences from linear tv and the lure of extra superior advert applied sciences—promising a greater ROAS. ESPN, who put the dual-revenue-stream mannequin on the subsequent stage throughout its hey-days round 2014 by providing the promoting business the mixture of being sports activities pay-TV (= engaging audiences) and offering mass-reach (= 100M+ households) in a safe surroundings reached 40% of promoting income as a part of its income combine—reflecting a really bullish assumption for the funding case of MediaPro.

  4. Loss-Making Operations: Having worthwhile OTT streaming service operations from the get-go is an uphill-batlle, however the inherent drawback of licensees is that they don’t solely lease audiences (as mirrored in “Platform/Distribution/Bundle/Low cost Tax”) however the IP as nicely—hitting a worthwhile run fee in direction of the top of any three-to-five-year rights cycle (and shortly earlier than the subsequent rights cycle and connected with it the chance of a considerably larger price ticket or lack of the rights) being virtually probably the most bullish case and with out enough time to recoup the ramp-up losses.

  5. Churn and Addressable Market: Intra-annual retention of subscribers is pushed by seasonality and Telefoot’s present “portfolio of rights” on combination, doesn’t guarantee a secure subscription base over time. Thus, from a rights acquisition technique perspective, it’s extra a “assortment of rights” than a well-diversified portfolio—limiting the overall addressable market (suppose: soccer followers/informal sports activities followers solely) and making the streaming service extremely reliant on different built-in anti-churn mechanisms (suppose: producing/licensing authentic non-live programming, including friction to the cancellation course of). As month-to-month subscriptions suggest a relentless supply and trade of worth—requiring renewed dedication on a periodical foundation—even well-diversified pure-sports streamers are absolutely keen to present steep reductions on annual passes because of the powerful actuality of OTT economics: There’s little incentive to take action on this case given the comparatively meager low cost in trade for a one-year dedication. Each the overall addressable market and stuck prices will lower beginning with the 2021/22 season as soon as the Champions League (sub-licensed from RMC Sports activities throughout the 2020/21 season) will transfer over to Canal+—and all of it turns into about buyer retention for TĂ©lĂ©foot. The “TĂ©lĂ©foot” branding itself additionally appears to restrict any optionality to pivot right into a multi-sports streaming streamer with out main advertising and marketing spending to maneuver past the model’s pure affiliation with soccer at this level. Preliminary, very aggressive buyer acquisition mode with subsequently rapidly switching into buyer retention/monetization mode did make sense on paper taking the character of comparatively quick rights cycles into consideration—which might have made closing in depth distribution agreements instantly much more very important.


Earlier than the onset of cord-cutting round 2015, cable/satellite tv for pc pay-TV offered one-size-fits-all, mass-reach distribution to 100M+ households within the U.S. alone—absolutely serving two seemingly opposing ends: monetization and accessibility of content material. I took a deep-dive into the function of distribution when it comes to accessibility for a sport’s potential progress on this planet’s largest media market because it associated to the German Bundesliga and its negligence below the earlier rights holder FOX Sports activities final yr. (📝 Sizzling-Take #3: The Way forward for the Bundesliga in the USA Past 2020)

Whereas pure-sports streaming companies inherently restrict accessibility (suppose: digital divide, each economically and demographically) and proceed to have area of interest standing within the grand scheme of issues, the function of distribution when it comes to monetization has skilled a paradigm shift as nicely:

Pay-TV operators paid out mounted “carriage charges” to content material creators for each single subscriber of their respective TV package deal of which any given channel was routinely a part of—leading to assured recurring revenues at scale for rights holders which subsequently trickled all the way down to the leagues within the kind rights charges. In the USA, even special-interest sports activities channels resembling SEC Community or beIN SPORTS delegated to the TV operators’ premium packages gained scale which present pure-sports streaming companies will in all probability by no means attain and an overcompensation in ARPU appears unlikely given the continued race to the underside in the case of pricing as basically all streamers are in full buyer acquisition mode—buyer monetization should comply with down the street: Making more cash off fewer prospects is the entire thought of OTT (= reducing out the middle-men) and DTC (= monetizing the client relationship in a number of methods) however sure scale is required nonetheless.

When negotiating the tiers (= figuring out the variety of subscribers) and carriage payment (= income per subscriber) with TV operators, content material had been king because it offered nice leverage vis-a-vis commoditized TV operators of which there have been excellent substitutes for shoppers if any given “must-have” channels had not been carried. Costly stay sports activities programming frequently secured its place in basic-tier packages, inevitably ensuing within the often-cited “ballooned pay-TV bundle” from the patron’s viewpoint—a notion explicit prevalent for non-sports followers.

Distribution has modified within the digital age although: “Carriage” charges have turn into “affiliate” charges. Being “distributed” considerably reduces friction for the client sign-up however now not ensures any revenues for content material creators—it’s now so-called IPTV: a managed service, delivered by TV operators / telcos through a set-top field.

In actual fact, the dominance of main know-how corporations because the gateway to digital content material and the abundance of content material combating for the patron’s thoughts and pockets share has put their respective bargaining energy the wrong way up: Entry to prospects turns into important and there hardly ever is “must-have” content material anymore. True possession of the client relationship for OTT streaming companies (suppose: private/billing data), the definition of a real direct-to-consumer enterprise, is usually not achievable and solely the world’s largest manufacturers can fully forego (suppose: Spotify/Netflix not permitting sign-up through iOS/Android) or restrict the intermediation by (suppose: Netflix not changing into a part of The Roku Channel, Apple TV, or Prime Video Channels) third-party distributors. Throughout the pay-TV period, content material creators didn’t have buyer company both however at the very least obtained assured revenues at scale. Now, OTT streaming companies haven’t solely not been in a position to minimize out the standard middlemen (suppose: telcos pivoting to “super-aggregators”) however added extra intermediaries who’re searching for their share of revenues, knowledge, and promoting area. Finally, somebody is at all times going to be the lease seeker in TV—putting themselves between prospects and content material. Beforehand, it has been satellite tv for pc/cable suppliers. However now Roku, Google, Amazon, and Apple are enjoying that function along with the earlier gamers.

Sadly for content material creators, the ambitions of know-how corporations should not restricted to be a platform with super-high margins (suppose: connecting differentiated manufacturers with client demand) however increase to imagine the function of an aggregator by accumulating a vital mass of customers (like platforms) and leveraging that entry to these shoppers to extract worth from the supplying content material creators—finally resulting in commoditization as an alternative of differentiation of manufacturers: By the use of proudly owning the person expertise/interface and buyer relationship, the out there content material on Roku, Hearth TV, or Apple TV turns into more and more related to these gamers as an alternative of those that are literally licensing and supplying the content material within the first place—with out all of the monetary danger, margin-pressure, restricted scalability, and operational overhead connected to working within the Content material Layer. Moreover, aggregators, particularly, promote churn, which is dangerous for the person streaming service however helpful for the mixture—leaving the person content material creator even with out the flexibility to retarget churned prospects because of the lack of buyer possession. Shoppers favor OTT aggregators (suppose: “subscription fatigue” as a result of non-financial prices): The convenience of utilizing a single person interface through a single app, managing a single invoice, in addition to cross-service navigation and search (i.e. discovery), is definitely engaging in at the moment’s fragmented streaming panorama.

The entire thought of why to get distributed attain within the first place is about rising the subscription base rapidly—which doesn’t essentially imply gaining a buyer: Distributors get the client, their knowledge, the billing data, and the flexibility to market to them.

Coming again to MediaPro although: Off-platform subscribers through the content material creator’s owned and operated web site are probably the most priceless, highest-margin ones and symbolize a real direct-to-consumer relationship. Along with conventional advertising and marketing spending, rights holders are even keen to additional dilute ARPUs by undercutting platform-pricing to realize buyer company. In actual fact, discounting the owned & operated web site service is usually a straightforward trade-off for streamers (if allowed).

With out third-party distribution although, the shortage of discoverability and inherent friction within the sign-up course of would denigrate many OTT companies to mere “direct-to-fan” choices—having no likelihood to seize the informal sports activities fan who will make or break an funding case like MediaPro.

As bargaining energy has shifted from those that personal, or at the very least lease, the provision (= content material creators, TĂ©lĂ©foot) to those that personal the demand (= content material distributors, Canal+) and Canal+ having the dimensions that fubo TV lacks as a distributor, carriage on the nation’s largest TV operator appears to have decided the religion of MediaPro’s funding from the start. Harking back to what occurred to Eleven Sports activities within the U.Okay. with Sky Sports activities and BT Sport, going into direct competitors when it comes to rights acquisitions with somebody on whom MediaPro would rely in a while for making a optimistic ROI for any given rights acquisition exhibits the facility of vertical integration: combining the content material and distribution layer.


Accumulating built-in distribution (suppose: Amazon) or globally-recognized model energy (suppose: Spotify, Netflix) within the first place makes content material creators each much less reliant on extending attain through costly third-party distribution and extra engaging as a rights holder to rights house owners (suppose: monetization and accessibility of content material). The latter is ostensibly evidenced by the reductions which bidders with mass-distribution resembling free-to-air broadcast TV (suppose: FOX/ABC/FOX/CBS in the USA) and “Huge Tech” (suppose: Amazon in the USA or United Kingdom) have been getting in comparison with their paywalled, lower-reach rivals (suppose: ESPN in the USA or Sky Sports activities in the UK).

The issue for rights house owners although: Free-to-air broadcast TV is constraint-in-size (suppose: restricted programming minutes/shelf-space), depends upon restricted budgets by the promoting business, and, due to this fact, has solely curiosity in some video games of the only a few top-tier sports activities properties that may draw mainstream audiences.

In terms of “Huge Tech,” Amazon might be the know-how firm that’s talked about probably the most just like the one who will step proper in and save sports activities as at the very least some properties appear to method the height of media rights valuations. Nevertheless, Amazon’s method to sports activities rights is much less strategic than opportunity-driven and advantages from distinctive inner cross-marketing/monetization/subsidization. The e-commerce large will present sometimes the very uncommon bonanza, or at the very least bail-out, for sports activities however is not going to save sports activities at giant: Amazon, of which there’s just one, won’t ever be fascinated about each sports activities proper out there and solely improved enterprise, or extra particularly, monetization fashions, will do the trick and warrant comparable rights charges as previously.

Not each property or out there rights package deal comes with a really restricted variety of video games, virtually no manufacturing and editorial programming duties, and a compressed timeframe that may be parlayed with at the very least one of many 4 most vital on-line purchasing days in Amazon Prime Day, Black Friday, Cyber Monday, and Christmas–-this has been the case throughout the board for Amazon’s investments within the NFL, Premier League, Autumn Nation Cup, and French Open. Amazon continues to be experimenting and stays within the “Distribution Layer” as a lot as potential (suppose: asset-light, counting on third-party options by FOX and Sundown+Vine for manufacturing, or WSC Sports activities for innovation) at this level.

If the monetization hole between the enterprise fashions of conventional pay-TV and OTT streaming (suppose: triple-revenue-model of subscription charges, superior addressable promoting, and add-on integrations) is just not closed in the long term, rationale enterprise conduct (suppose: buyer acquisition prices ≀ buyer lifetime worth) ought to prevail and would dictate much less income trickling all the way down to the right-owning leagues and organizations in type of licensing charges because the inevitable consequence. On the similar time, I don’t count on the delta between revenues/scale of owned and operated streaming companies by rights house owners and licensing payment/protection from third-parties to shrink considerably—particularly in the case of first-tier properties such because the main European soccer leagues and main sports activities leagues in North America, neither domestically nor internationally. This delta is the important thing consideration when evaluating any direct-to-consumer ambitions of rights house owners and defines the scope of such. In different phrases, the function of league-owned and -operated OTT companies will stay that of a premium product for die-hards (for main sports activities leagues in North America) or a difficult-to-believe risk a.okay.a. bargaining chip in direction of their broadcasting companions (for the main European soccer leagues).

And always remember: Buying subscribers with a buyer lifetime worth larger than their acquisition prices solely begins recouping investments in content material acquisition and operational prices—nonetheless a protracted solution to go for making a revenue (as a rights holder) or coming near the licensing charges that proceed to be paid by third-parties (as a rights proprietor).

Content material was King within the linear previous, Distribution has turn into each commoditized (technically) and vitally vital (commercially) within the digital age. Implicitly, renting/creating sought-after content material is now not the be-all-end-all for efficiently and sustainably coming into the (sports activities) broadcasting/streaming market—different aggressive benefits throughout the IP (e.g. Disney, Rights Homeowners) and/or Distribution (e.g. Amazon, Apple) at the moment are required. MediaPro’s run as the principle home rights holder of the French Ligue 1 appears to be heading in direction of its finish earlier than it actually started. Despite the fact that COVID-19 didn’t assist, MediaPro CEO Jaume Roures blaming the income shortcomings on the shortage of promoting revenues doesn’t make sense as digital (addressable) promoting on OTT streaming companies continues to be in its infancy given the shortage of scale and with somewhat unproven superiority when it comes to ROAS. As an alternative, the gaping gap in TĂ©lĂ©foot’s distribution leaves the service’s subscription whole sitting at +/- 400,000 amongst TV operators / telcos (i.e. Orange, Free, SFR, Bouygues) plus those that have signed up through TĂ©lĂ©foot’s over-the-top streaming companies (TV OS / Cell OS / Web site). Sadly, France is a historically robust IPTV market (with telcos as gatekeeper) with an underdeveloped/-penetrated OTT panorama (with “Huge Tech” as gatekeeper), by which Canal+ (+/- 8.4M subscribers) is coincidentally the most important cable/satellite tv for pc/IPTV participant. And despite the fact that content material creators counting on distribution by way of the telcos is just not an ideal deal for them, alternative routes to entry finish shoppers are very restricted.

As soon as full distribution a.okay.a. market penetration is achieved and buyer take-up accelerated, streaming companies must swap from buyer acquisition to buyer monetization/retention mode.

Despite the fact that there’s plenty of untapped, technology-enabled potential for innovation in media rights packaging and distribution, it stays uncertain whether or not rights-holding OTTs will come near the IP’s stage of monetization (= Subscribers x ARPU) as earlier than and be capable of pay rights charges to which rights house owners have turn into used to over the previous decade. As an alternative, in an effort to complement media rights revenues, rights house owners will in all probability have a broader set of media companions and content material exclusivity will turn into much less vital as markets fragment (suppose: much less platform-neutral rights). Completely different rights holders of the identical rights proprietor could have totally different addressable markets and talents to achieve them—with restricted overlap and competitors between them.

The direct-to-consumer a part of rights house owners, although, shall be somewhat strategically- than commercially-driven: In terms of income streams, rights-owning leagues and organizations will proceed to depend on B2B relationships (together with second-level bank-rolling intermediaries resembling rights businesses) for the foreseeable future. However even these B2B relationships might be optimized and diversified.

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